Back-end Developer Roadmap

Esma Aslan
Account Manager
26/2/2024

One of the main questions that people who want to become developers often face is what programming languages they should learn and where to start this journey. We've created this roadmap guide to answer this question and help people who want to become a backend developer in 2024!

Back-end Web Developer Roadmap

In today's digital age, the sustainability of businesses and services depends largely on software products and applications, which means that the demand and need for backend software developers is higher than ever. Due to the nature of technology, the field of backend development, just like the frontend, is constantly evolving. Therefore, it is very important to ask ourselves what are the latest tools and technologies to succeed in this field, and to master them and stay up to date.

In this comprehensive guide, we've compiled a roadmap to help people find their way through the complex world of back-end software development. We covered many basic topics and concepts, from basic programming languages such as Python and Java, to API development, databases to web security. Also for table display this place You can visit.

Whether you're relatively experienced or just starting from scratch, this backend developer roadmap will help you learn about the basic and important issues you need. Let's get started!

Internet and its Basics

Especially for those who are starting from scratch, it is very important to first understand the fundamentals and functioning of the internet world. Learning the key concepts that express how a web service such as HTTP, URL, DNS works, learning the role of each and how they interact with each other will help you not only be a good back-end developer, but also more easily understand and resolve bugs or problems that you have encountered throughout your career. This will also give you a better understanding of how the service you develop is positioned within the web ecosystem. Researching the following questions and learning about them will allow you to navigate this effectively.

Backend Programming Languages

Programming languages, This is the basis of the back end development. Although the backend language works in integration with other key mechanisms such as database, framework, web server, we can say that it constitutes the most critical part of development.

Among the most used software languages in backend development are:

Java is often a prominent choice among these languages, but in the back-end world you don't have to be limited to Java alone. Many other languages mentioned above, such as Javascript, C#, Python, Ruby, and PHP, are also quite common and useful.

When deciding which language you want to learn, choosing a language that aligns with your goals should of course be a priority. That is why it is quite useful to get a detailed knowledge of languages, their prominent pros and cons, and to evaluate them in comparison.

Back-end Framework

Once you have a solid foundation in software languages, you should also learn frameworks as a complement to it. Here are some popular back end frameworks that you might want to explore and learn in depth:

Version Control Systems

We can call it an integral part of the software development processes for version control systems (VCS). Using these software tools, developers can systematically manage changes made to source code and track different versions of the code over time.

To put it more simply, these systems record all changes made to the code and allow developers to revert to a desired version when they need to review previous versions. This provides great convenience in maintaining the integrity and consistency of the source code, but also reduces the risk of code conflicts and errors.

Git can be said that Git is the most popular version control system today. Version control systems generally offer a variety of functionalities such as branching, merging, rebase, and these functions allow software teams and developers to collaborate easily in the development process.

Repo Hosting Service

Repo Hosting Service is a service that includes version control systems that allows software developers to store, track, and share source codes.

A warehouse hosting service is a platform that can usually be accessed online and through a web interface. It allows users to check their codebase, track changes made, undo, and compare different versions. It also offers a variety of collaboration functions that make it easy for multiple developers to work together on the same project.

Databases (Database Management Systems)

Databases are used to store and manage application data. Back end developers work with databases to store, retrieve, and process data depending on application requirements.

There are many functions and advantages that databases offer. Structured data management enables easy access and sharing of data, reducing manual processes and improving data security. In addition, database systems reduce the error rate in business processes, speed up decision-making, and make data sharing secure.

There are two types of databases: relational and NoSQL databases. Relational databases use table structure to organize data, while NoSQL databases are designed to handle large amounts of unstructured data.

Relational Relational Databases

Non-Relational Databases

Application Programming Interface (API)

Application Programming Interfaces, in other words APIs, are software tools that allow different applications to communicate with each other. They are quite critical for the creation of advanced applications.

They basically provide a standardized way for different applications to exchange data and functionality. This makes it easy to integrate various software platforms.

When designing and implementing APIs, it is very important to follow practices such as proper naming, versioning, and good documentation.

In general, APIs are a critical component of modern software development, and they also leverage the functions of other software platforms, enabling the creation of more powerful and innovative applications.

Caching

Cache is the area where all the data that is temporarily stored on the computer is located. Thanks to the cache, processing time is reduced, time is saved and performance is improved, providing users with a high-performance experience. Caching, on the other hand, is a technique that means that certain data or pages are temporarily stored in memory, allowing the computer or browser to work faster and more efficiently.

It is important to learn caching because this process;

Web Security

Web security involves understanding the possible threats and weaknesses that web applications may face, learning best practices and techniques to protect against them. These concepts include issues such as authentication, authorization, encryption, and secure coding practices. Having this basic knowledge, backend developers can ensure the security and integrity of user data so that they can prevent malicious attacks. This is critical to building reliable and robust web applications.

We suggest you research the concept of “hashing algorithm” and the following popular hashing algorithms.

Another important title is 'API Security Best Practices'. To learn this topic, you need to study the underlying concepts and topics in detail.

Time to Turn Knowledge into Practice to Become a Back End Developer

After completing and internalizing all these steps on the roadmap, congratulations! Now, as a backend developer, you have mastered the basics.

Now is the time to practice a lot. With projects where you will transfer the topics you learn into practice, you can make your software skills much stronger and improve your problem-solving side, which is especially critical for software development. This will help you move much faster in the process and strengthen your self-confidence step by step.

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Back-end Developer Roadmap

Bu yazımızda back-end developer olmak isteyenler için yol haritası oluşturduk!

One of the main questions that people who want to become developers often face is what programming languages they should learn and where to start this journey. We've created this roadmap guide to answer this question and help people who want to become a backend developer in 2024!

Back-end Web Developer Roadmap

In today's digital age, the sustainability of businesses and services depends largely on software products and applications, which means that the demand and need for backend software developers is higher than ever. Due to the nature of technology, the field of backend development, just like the frontend, is constantly evolving. Therefore, it is very important to ask ourselves what are the latest tools and technologies to succeed in this field, and to master them and stay up to date.

In this comprehensive guide, we've compiled a roadmap to help people find their way through the complex world of back-end software development. We covered many basic topics and concepts, from basic programming languages such as Python and Java, to API development, databases to web security. Also for table display this place You can visit.

Whether you're relatively experienced or just starting from scratch, this backend developer roadmap will help you learn about the basic and important issues you need. Let's get started!

Internet and its Basics

Especially for those who are starting from scratch, it is very important to first understand the fundamentals and functioning of the internet world. Learning the key concepts that express how a web service such as HTTP, URL, DNS works, learning the role of each and how they interact with each other will help you not only be a good back-end developer, but also more easily understand and resolve bugs or problems that you have encountered throughout your career. This will also give you a better understanding of how the service you develop is positioned within the web ecosystem. Researching the following questions and learning about them will allow you to navigate this effectively.

  • How does the Internet work?
  • What is HTTP?
  • How do browsers work?
  • What is a domain name and how does it work?
  • What is hosting?
  • What is DNS and how does it work?

Backend Programming Languages

Programming languages, This is the basis of the back end development. Although the backend language works in integration with other key mechanisms such as database, framework, web server, we can say that it constitutes the most critical part of development.

Among the most used software languages in backend development are:

  • Java
  • Javascript
  • PHP
  • Pythons
  • Ruby
  • C#

Java is often a prominent choice among these languages, but in the back-end world you don't have to be limited to Java alone. Many other languages mentioned above, such as Javascript, C#, Python, Ruby, and PHP, are also quite common and useful.

When deciding which language you want to learn, choosing a language that aligns with your goals should of course be a priority. That is why it is quite useful to get a detailed knowledge of languages, their prominent pros and cons, and to evaluate them in comparison.

Back-end Framework

Once you have a solid foundation in software languages, you should also learn frameworks as a complement to it. Here are some popular back end frameworks that you might want to explore and learn in depth:

  • Skip Boot
  • ASP.NET
  • Laravel
  • Rails or Ruby on Rails (ROR)
  • Django

Version Control Systems

We can call it an integral part of the software development processes for version control systems (VCS). Using these software tools, developers can systematically manage changes made to source code and track different versions of the code over time.

To put it more simply, these systems record all changes made to the code and allow developers to revert to a desired version when they need to review previous versions. This provides great convenience in maintaining the integrity and consistency of the source code, but also reduces the risk of code conflicts and errors.

  • Go,
  • Subversion,
  • Mercurial,
  • Perforce are some of the widely used version control systems.

Git can be said that Git is the most popular version control system today. Version control systems generally offer a variety of functionalities such as branching, merging, rebase, and these functions allow software teams and developers to collaborate easily in the development process.

Repo Hosting Service

Repo Hosting Service is a service that includes version control systems that allows software developers to store, track, and share source codes.

A warehouse hosting service is a platform that can usually be accessed online and through a web interface. It allows users to check their codebase, track changes made, undo, and compare different versions. It also offers a variety of collaboration functions that make it easy for multiple developers to work together on the same project.

Databases (Database Management Systems)

Databases are used to store and manage application data. Back end developers work with databases to store, retrieve, and process data depending on application requirements.

There are many functions and advantages that databases offer. Structured data management enables easy access and sharing of data, reducing manual processes and improving data security. In addition, database systems reduce the error rate in business processes, speed up decision-making, and make data sharing secure.

There are two types of databases: relational and NoSQL databases. Relational databases use table structure to organize data, while NoSQL databases are designed to handle large amounts of unstructured data.

Relational Relational Databases

  • MySQL
  • SQL
  • Oracle
  • PostgreSQL

Non-Relational Databases

  • Firebase
  • MongoDB
  • Cassandra

Application Programming Interface (API)

Application Programming Interfaces, in other words APIs, are software tools that allow different applications to communicate with each other. They are quite critical for the creation of advanced applications.

They basically provide a standardized way for different applications to exchange data and functionality. This makes it easy to integrate various software platforms.

  • REST (Representational State Transfer) API,
  • SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol) API,
  • There are different types of APIs, such as GraphQL API, and each has its own strengths and uses.

When designing and implementing APIs, it is very important to follow practices such as proper naming, versioning, and good documentation.

In general, APIs are a critical component of modern software development, and they also leverage the functions of other software platforms, enabling the creation of more powerful and innovative applications.

Caching

Cache is the area where all the data that is temporarily stored on the computer is located. Thanks to the cache, processing time is reduced, time is saved and performance is improved, providing users with a high-performance experience. Caching, on the other hand, is a technique that means that certain data or pages are temporarily stored in memory, allowing the computer or browser to work faster and more efficiently.

It is important to learn caching because this process;

  • Improves performance and user experience by allowing websites and applications to load faster.
  • Reduces data usage by preventing the same data from being downloaded over and over again. For example, it provides access to previously visited web pages even without an internet connection.
  • It also makes it possible to keep user data on websites safe.

Web Security

Web security involves understanding the possible threats and weaknesses that web applications may face, learning best practices and techniques to protect against them. These concepts include issues such as authentication, authorization, encryption, and secure coding practices. Having this basic knowledge, backend developers can ensure the security and integrity of user data so that they can prevent malicious attacks. This is critical to building reliable and robust web applications.

We suggest you research the concept of “hashing algorithm” and the following popular hashing algorithms.

  • MD5
  • SHA Familie
  • Scrypt
  • BCrypt

Another important title is 'API Security Best Practices'. To learn this topic, you need to study the underlying concepts and topics in detail.

  • HTTPS
  • CORS
  • CSP
  • OWASP Risks
  • SSL/TSL
  • Server-Sicherheit

Time to Turn Knowledge into Practice to Become a Back End Developer

After completing and internalizing all these steps on the roadmap, congratulations! Now, as a backend developer, you have mastered the basics.

Now is the time to practice a lot. With projects where you will transfer the topics you learn into practice, you can make your software skills much stronger and improve your problem-solving side, which is especially critical for software development. This will help you move much faster in the process and strengthen your self-confidence step by step.

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